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The beginnings of another New England, a society apart from the region's ancient Anglo-American origins, began to emerge in the years after 1900. An unprecedented surge of new immigrants to the United States peaked between 1880 and 1910. They finally reached the Connecticut Valley in the last years of that period and soon came to fill an important part of Valley society. This article is generally positive about the immigrant presence, reflecting an optimism not entirely unusual in the years before World War I. But the outbreak of war in 1914 slowed new arrivals and when the numbers began to pick up in the early 1920s the nation was much less well disposed to new immigrants. Immigration to the United States almost entirely ceased after the 1929 implementation of the Johnson-Reed Act of 1924. Polish immigration into the Connecticut Valley resumed somewhat after World War II but was squelched by the Cold War. Many new immigrants have come since 1990.