(c) Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Deerfield MA. All rights reserved. Contact us for information about using this image.
View of the interior of an operating room in Greenfield, Massachusetts in 1903. This photograph, taken during the course of surgery, does not convey the sterile conditions that we associate with modern hospital operating rooms in the developed world. In addition to the four male doctors and two female nurses, three observers in street clothes look on. None of the doctors wear surgical masks or gloves, articles now considered necessary to prevent contamination.